MICROBIOLOGY AND VIROLOGY

Komenkova T.S., Zaitseva E.A.

Phenotypic and genotypic diversity of Enterococcus faecalis in infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system in children in the Primorsky region

Microorganisms of the genus Enterococcus are subdominant representatives of the normal microflora of the human gastrointestinal tract. Objective: to assess the pheno- and genotypic diversity of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from the urine of children with urinary tract infection to identify microbiological markers characteristic of etiologically significant strains of E. faecalis. Materials and methods. The study investigated E. faecalis isolates (n = 51) isolated from urine of patients with IMS aged from 3 days to 17 years, in the period from 2013 to 2017. The biological properties of enterococci were assessed by classical microbiological methods. The determination of genes encoding virulence factors (cylA, gelE, aggA, efaA, esp, eep) was carried out using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), with visualization in 1% agarose gel. Results. The variability of biochemical activity and pathogenicity factors of uropathogenic E. faecalis isolated from children in Primorsky Krai was noted. Revealed the following features, different from the literature data in biochemical activity - the absence of fermentation of rhamnose in all studied cultures and the absence of fermentation of sucrose in 15.6% E. faecalis, lactose - in 11.1% and glucose - in 8.9% of cultures; among the factors of pathogenicity - frequent detection of lipolytic (94.1%), hemolytic (78.0%) and lecithinase (35.3%) activities. Based on the results of PCR, 14 variants of the combination of genes encoding pathogenicity factors among enterococcal ustrains were established. The most common is the profile containing all determinants of pathogenicity factors, as well as (aggA, efaA, eep, gelE) and (aggA, efaA, eep, gelE, esp). Conclusions. The revealed microbiological phenotypic (presence of proteolytic, lecithinase and lipolytic activities) and molecular genetic (presence of aggA, efaA, eep, and gelE genes) features of E. faecalis in children with IMS can serve as microbiological criteria for identifying clinically significant strains of E. faecalis.

EPIDEMIOLOGY

Gerets A.G., Terekhova G.V., Parashchenko G.A., Belogolovkina N.A.

Epidemiological situation on sexually transmitted infections in the Primorsky region

In order to conduct an epidemiological assessment, the authors analyzed the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among residents of Primorsky region in the period from 2010 to 2018. In the XXI century. these infections represent a problem of high social importance. It was revealed that the epidemiological situation of STIs in Primorsky region in the modern period can be characterized as unstable. Against the background of a general decline, the incidence rate of the most able-bodied population remains high, and cases of diseases in children and adolescents continue to be detected. To maintain the achieved trend towards a decrease in morbidity, it is necessary to expand preventive work among the population in order to increase its awareness of STIs and measures for their prevention, and it is also necessary to improve the professional level of specialists in various fields to identify STIs.

HYGIENE

Anishchenko E.B., Trankovskaya L.V.

Scientific rationale for measures on protection of health of workers of departmental protection railway transport

An assessment is made of the level of safety and risk of railway transport security service employees. The degree of harmfulness of work, this is a digital indicator that is used to determine the level of harmfulness of work, that is, to determine the level of safety of the profession and, in fact, the conditions in which the person works. Three main groups are identified 3.1. low or low indicator of harmfulness of work, 3.2. – medium, 3.3. – tall. Based on the statistical processing of data, it was concluded that the incidence rate and temporary disability is low for employees of the administrative and administrative corps, while for the production staff of departmental railway protection (DRP) the indicators reach values of average and above average. Studies have shown that among workers, shooters and accompanying service dogs, the incidence rate of the respiratory system (class X ICD-10) is high, and the average incidence rate of the circulatory system (class IX ICD-10) is recorded among the employees of the administrative center of DRP. Referring to the results of the research, the “Program for improving working conditions and preventing violations of the state of health of employees of the departmental railway transport protection of the Russian Federation” is presented, which allows to reduce the incidence rate among DRP workers by 15%.

Yatsenko A.K., Trankovskaya L.V., Loginov K.V.

Features of biological development of children living in Vladivostok administrative areas

The purpose of the research was to study the peculiarities of biological development of children living in the administrative districts of Vladivostok. Materials and methods. The hygienic characteristic of the level of anthropotechnogenic contamination is given in accordance with the current methodological recommendations. The growth-weight indices were measured according to the unified anthropometric method, the body length increase for the last year was analyzed, dental maturity was estimated by the number of permanent teeth and their cutting times. Results. It has been revealed that the sanitary and hygienic situation in the Leninsky district of the city is estimated as unsatisfactory, in the Pervorchensky and Frunsensky districts - as relatively satisfactory.  It was found that children living in different areas of the city did not have statistically significant differences in terms of biological maturity. Conclusions. Modern generation of children 's population of the region in most age-sex groups overtake the peers of previous decades according to average values of growth-weight criteria.

SCIENCE - PRACTICE

Kurbatov V.A., Andreev B.A., Nefedova L.I.

Intestinal microbiome metabolites and their impact on human health

The gut microbiota plays a key role in maintaining human health and performance. Influencing the immune system, metabolism, mental state and cognitive functions, the normal autoflora of the gastrointestinal tract provides an optimal level of activity of organs and body systems, and when dysbiosis occurs, diseases occur. Over the past decades, significant progress has been made in the normalization of intestinal dysbiosis, however, the specific mechanisms of signal transmission from the host microbiota are still not fully understood. The authors discuss the identified strategies for the synthesis of microbial metabolites, their absorption and potential physiological effects on the host organism using the example of studies of the relationship of the intestinal microbiome with human health carried out in recent years. It is possible that the signaling effects of the influence of metabolites of intestinal bacteria can fill the gap in our knowledge about the relationship of the intestinal microbiota with human biological systems, as well as their impact on maintaining health and the occurrence of diseases.

BRIEF POSTS

Zeynalov N.D., Rustamov E.A., Hasanov A.R.

Role of central obesity in the origin of incisional abdominal hernias

Zolotar V.G., Degtyarev V.V.

Comparative assessment of the development of complications in patients operated on for cholelithiasis with choledocholithiasis after drainage of the choledochal

Ionkin D.A., Zhao A.V.

Laparoscopic cryodestruction of malignant neoplasms of the liver